|Title||เวทีสาธารณะ: จับกระแส Rio+20 สู่สังคมไทย|
|Year of Publication||2009|
|Series Editor||จารุสมบัติ โสภารัตน์, กุลเดชคุณา วิจิตร, เสถียรไทย สุธาวัลย์, รายนานนท์ วิทย์|
|Keywords||การลดการปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจก, ต้นทุนในการลดมลพิษ, โครงการกลไกการพัฒนาที่สะอาด|
Many countries are now launching programs on carbon reduction and have encouraged industries to reduce carbon emission appropriately. On many circumstances, it was observed that industries that release more carbon into the atmosphere may be assigned to engage more in carbon reduction. However, such a carbon reduction concept may turn out to be economically inefficient and expensive as carbon reduction activities may end up taking place by high cost firms in polluting industries. If high cost firms are engaged in carbon reduction the whole economy will inevitably become worse off as more resources will be mobilized towards carbon reduction unnecessary. From the economic perspective, it is necessary to establish a mechanism where carbon reduction is carried out by low cost firms hence enabling the whole economy to engage in carbon reduction in a least cost or cost efficient manner.
In addition to addressing the efficiency criteria, carbon reduction activities also need to take into consideration the distribution criteria as well. For instance, implementation of economic instruments, such as, carbon tax and subsidies ought to address the issue of who will bare the burden of or who will benefit from such measures. It would be desirable if the tax incidence falls more on the better off families while the beneficiaries of subsidies program fall on low-income families. For these reasons, there is a need to prepare a set of economic instruments that provides correct signals leading towards a cost minimizing low carbon society as well as a society where the better off families bare more burden from carbon reduction than the less fortunate families.
The objective of this study is to prepare a set of economic instruments for carbon reduction in Thailand. In doing so, the study will investigate the cost structure of carbon reduction by firms or what is commonly referred to as marginal abatement cost. The data used in this study is collected from firms that are registered in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Thailand.
The result of the analysis shows that the cost of carbon reduction or the abatement cost varies among industries from 16 baht per tcoe to 27,343 baht per tcoe. The industry with the highest abatement cost is the energy sector (electricity), followed by the industrial sector, the energy (agriculture), the energy (industry) and the waste sector. This result suggests that carbon reduction in Thailand can be cost minimizing if carbon reduction activities are carried out by firms in the energy (industry) sector and the waste sector.
This study also recommends that carbon reduction ought to be carried out via a mix of policy measures rather one single measure as each measure tends to have it advantages and disadvantages. A policy mix will entail policy measures including legal measures, social measures, and economic measures as well as creating public awareness on the need to move toward becoming a low carbon society. This study recommends economic measures that recognize the varying structure of abatement cost of carbon reduction among firms together with adequate consideration on their distributional impacts. Policy measures suggested by this study includes 1) an elimination of subsidies given to high carbon emission firms, 2) establishing a voluntary carbon market in Thailand, 3) imposing a carbon tax on the energy sector, 4) establishing a progressive electricity pricing scheme, e) imposing a carbon tax on auto emission, 5) establishing a Thailand Greenhouse Gas Fund (TGF) and 6) establishing a Thailand Forest Bond (TFB). In addition, subsidies should only be given to low-income carbon releasing sectors, namely, the agricultural sectors.
This study is the first in Thailand that provides a link between the marginal abatement cost concept and policy measures. It is hope that the outcome of this study will contribute to sharper public policy formulation on carbon reduction in Thailand where the Thai society can move towards a low carbon society in a cost effective manner while leaving minimal impacts on low-income families. Recognizing this cost effectiveness in carbon reduction will enable Thailand to maintain its comparative edge in its production sector while moving towards a low carbon society at the same time.