|Title||ห่วงโซ่อุปทานของสัตว์น้ำอ่าวบ้านดอน จังหวัดสุราษฎร์ธานี กรณีศึกษาหอยลาย หอยตลับลาย หอยขาว และหอยไฟไหม้|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Series Editor||เดชนะ ธนสาร|
|Keywords||หอยขาว, หอยตลับลาย, หอยลาย, หอยไฟไหม้|
This research aims to 1) study the clam fishermen’s states of economy and society in Ao Bandon, Suratthani Province, the system of manufacturing and marketing of targeted aquatic animals (undulated surf clams, enamel venus shells, semigrooved venus, orental hard clams, and hard clams) and the linkage of entrepreneurs in the supply chain of the target; 2) to evaluate the state of economy of targeted aquatic animals and their values affected to residents around Ao Bandon. The study was done in Ao Bandon and groups of fishermen in Tachana District, Chaiya District, Donsak District, and Phunphin District were selected as the population using the method of interview and small group meeting for the findings as follows:
For the states of economy and society of clam fishermen in Ao Bandon, Suratthani, most interviewees were women (66.00%) aging between 41 and 50 years (37.00%) born in Suratthani (92.00%). In addition, they were Buddhists (96.00%) and their education level was primary (74.00%). They lived most in one-storey houses (81.00%) built in half cement and wood (44.00%) with space (80.00%). About their occupation, most of them were gardeners (47.00%) except those who were hard clam fishermen whose jobs mainly concern fishery without other jobs (35.00%) while the rest were just employees (28.00%).
In terms of income, there were two fishermen whose family members were also employed (54.00%). Their total monthly incomes were 5,000 - 10,000 baht (43.00%).
According to their expenses, they were divided into terms; 3,001 - 4,000 baht for food, 101-200 baht for clothing, 100 baht for medical fee, 501 - 1,000 baht for public utility, 500 baht for transportation, and no expenses for residence, liquor and cigarettes, lottery, and others.
It was also found that most fishermen had savings (53.00%) and no debts (61.00%). Others with debts had to be responsible for their household objects (21.00%).
For the system of manufacturing and marketing, it was specified to 5 types of clam fishery; undulated surf clams, enamel venus shells, semigrooved venuses, orental hard clams, and hard clams fishery.
Undulated surf clams were found a lot around the coast in Tambon Wang, Tachana District of Suratthani. The tools for fishery consist of the medium to large fishing boats with fifteen-horsepower engine and a side harrow, shovels, and baskets. In addition, three to six employees would go fishing for four to five hours around 3 kilometers out of the coast. The amount of undulated surf clams was around 170-180 kilograms. They would be caught a lot during October and December. The products of undulated surf clams were fresh ones and broken-shell ones. The fresh would be sold to the factory for 38.57% and to the wholesalers for 60.53%. Others would be sold to the retailers.
The fishery for enamel venus shells was done around the coastal area in Tambon Chonlakram in Donsak District. For this kind of fishery, 1 - 3 employees would fetch according to the demand of wholesalers and retailers. They would take a 14-horsepower boat, a rowboat, or they walked to get them with baskets, sacks, and ladles. They would go off the coast around 3 kilometers for 8 - 10 hours or use a rowboat or walk to find on the shore. The amount of them was around 41 - 50 kilograms. Later 18.38% of them were sold to private fish markets while 71.04% were sold to wholesalers, 3.24% to retailers, 4.11% directly to consumers, and 3.26% to restaurant. The price depended on the buyers.
Semigrooved venus and orental hard clams were found in sandbars on the shore in Tambon Pumriang in Chaiya District and in Tambon Donsak in Donsak District. When catching the clams, every one percent of semigrooved venus were found among orental hard clams. One or two fishermen would go 3 kilometers off the shore by a seven or eightmeter long-tailed boat with 13-horsepower engine or a rowboat with harrows and sacks for 8 to 10 hours to get the clams. The fishermen could get 1 - 3 kilograms of semigrooved venus each time everym month except during October and December and 21-30 kilograms of orental hard clams in April to June. The products of the semigrooved venus were all sold to wholesalers while the orental hard clams were sold to restaurants for 19.60%, the wholesalers in the local area for 47.01%, the retailers for 27.54%, and to the consumers for 5.85%. The price also depended on the buyers.
Hard clam fishery was done around Tambon Lilet in Phunphin District. The fishermen would take a long-tailed boat with baskets, harrows, and sacks to puddle area on the shore to fetch hard clams for 4 - 5 hours a day for 70-80 kilograms. The hard clams can be found throughout the year. The products of them were the fresh ones and the shell flesh. For the fresh, they were sold to the local restaurants for 1.40%, to the local people for 14.06%, and to the local retailers for 41.85% depending on the 1) fishermen use a longtailed boat for fine hard clam For estimate cost and receive form sale Hard clam is was 237,799 bath and total production cost is 169,549.25 bath . By the way the fisherman got net profit from sale Hard clam around 6,849.21 per year 2) Fisher man use boat for fine hard clam and receive income was 218,718 bath per person per year and total cost is 88,857.38 bath . Fisherman hard clam got net profit 130,935.62 bath per year
The linkage of the entrepreneurs in the supply chain of each species of clams was as follows:
Undulated surf clams were produced by fishermen. The fishermen took those clams to the clam boilers and the wholesalers. Then the retailers bought from them and spread the goods to consumers in Suratthani. The shells can be processed for covering the land in the construction industries.
Enamel venus shells were also produced by fishermen who took them to private fish markets and wholesalers. The good spreaders were retailers in Suratthani and restaurants. The main consumers are people in Suratthani.
Semigrooved venus produced by fishermen were taken to the wholesalers who later spread the goods to local restaurants and consumers.
Orental hard clams were taken to local wholesalers and markets by fishermen. The spreaders were retailers and restaurants in Suratthani. The customers were the consumer in Suratthani and others.
Hard clams were taken directly to retailers and restaurants by fishermen, not through wholesalers. The customers were people in Suratthani.
The fishermen’s economic values in terms of their total profit were as follows:
First, the fishermen could get 286,703 baht for the profit from producing Undulated surf clams.
For enamel venus shells, the fishermen divided the sale into 3 types; 1) with the investment for an engine boat, the fishermen could loss amount of 28,430 baht. 2) with a rowboat, the fishermen could get the profit 14,299 baht, and 3) walking to fetch clams, the fishermen got the profit 12,240.68 baht.
Then, the semigrooved venus fishery gave the fishermen the profit of 5,443 baht for the type of the investment of the transportation services, and profit of 6,464 baht for the investment for a boat and engine, and and the profit of 15,382 baht for the rent boat and engine
Orental hard clam fishery were able to provide the fishermen the profit of 21,133 baht for the type of the investment of the transportation services, and the profit of 36,690 baht for the investment for a boat and engine, and the profit of 18,107 baht for the rent boat and engine.
Lastly, hard clam fishery was able to provide the fishermen the profit of 190,445 baht for the type of the investment for a boat and engine, and profit of 208,175 for a rowboat.
In addition, it revealed that the targeted aquatic creatures provided the value in business calculated by the product distribution for Ao Bandon Community. That is; 1)Undulated surf clams valued A7,B32,454 baht; 2) enamel venus shells valued 3,833,449 baht; 3) semigrooved venus valued 855,400 baht; 4) orental hard clams valued 12,812,155 baht; and 5) hard clams valued C,513,494 baht.
According to the values of clams for local people’s quality of life, it was found that:
The fishermen catching undulated surf clams were overall satisfied with their selfindependence. They were content with their livelihood at the moderate level, their occupation at the high level, their families at the highest level, their health at the high level, and the environment at the moderate level respectively.
Meanwhile, those catching enamel venus shells were all satisfied with their selfindependence. They were also satisfied with their livelihood at the moderate level, their occupation at the high level, their families at the highest level, their health at the highest level, and the environment at the moderate level respectively.
In addition, semigrooved venus and Orental hard clam fishermen were all satisfied with their self-independence. They felt also happy with their livelihood at the moderate level, their occupation at the moderate level, their families at the moderate level, their health at the highest level, and the environment at the high level respectively.
However, the fishermen catching hard clams were uncertain about their ability of self-independence with the moderate level of their livelihood satisfaction. The satisfaction of their occupation, their health, and the environment was at the moderate level except their families of which the level of the satisfaction was the highest.
Suggestions for the Fishery Resources Restoration as a Sustainable Economic Base
These involve three factors as follows:
1) The sustainability of the crowd of aquatic animals – there should be conservation of targeted aquatic creatures. This can be done with the community and fishermen’s participation as well as the youth’s for awareness and tenacity which lead to continue and develop the job of fishing.
2) The sustainability of consumers’ needs – activities concerning promoting the products of aquatic animals should be annually held in order to have general consumers experience shell products and to find ways of spreading the products to other customers. Besides, there should be food procession for various kinds of consumption.
3) The sustainability of fishermen’s rewards – fishermen are skillful at catching aquatic animals, but the profit reward was veered around by two factors, incomes and expenses. Therefore, this kind of sustainability should be supported by encouraging the fishermen to plan the individual demanded production and have them play a role in specifying the production price more as well as have them control the production costs, both fixed and variable ones.
|Alternate Title||Supply chain of Bandon Bay aquarium Suratthani province : Meretrix Meretrix group|